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Chandrayaan - 2 : Launch Date

Chandrayaan - 2 : Launch Date - https://www.googlenewz.xyz/

Chandrayaan-2


Now first of all we will start this with the topic moon because this mission is over all related to Moon.

Moon 


It is a Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

The soviet unions "Luna Program" was the first to reach with unmanned spacecraft in 1959.
And after that there is a big break through came in "Apollo 11 mission" which was organised by "USA".

Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon.

Members were :- "Neil A. Armstrong ", "Buzz Aldrin.

so , over all "12 Men" have walked on the Moon. And in which all are the US astronauts from the Apollo Program missions.

But finally India contributed there role in Moon Missions in October 2008 in one of its Missions in October 2008 with one of its space program named as  "Chandrayaan -1".


Chandrayaan-1


Chandrayaan - 2 : Launch Date - https://www.googlenewz.xyz/


It was launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation  (ISRO) in October 2008, and operated until august 2009.

The estimated cost for the project was 386 crore .

It achieved a lots of knowledge about moon and among its many achievements , Its  greatest achievement was the discovery of the widespread presence of water molecules in the "lunar soil" (on Moon).



Is there water on the Moon ?


Yes, there is water on Moon, but it is not in liquid form . Because , the liquid water cannot persist at the Moon's surface and the water vapour is decomposed by sunlight , because hydrogen quickly lost to outer space.

And , However , scientists have conjectured since the 1960 s that there may be water ice that survive in cold at the Permanently shadowed craters at the Moon's Poles.


Chandrayaan-2


Now , here India's second Mission "Chandrayaan-2" to the Moon is a totally indigenous mission comprising of "an orbiter" "Lander ( named as VIKRAM) " and "Rover ( PRAGYAN)".



Chandrayaan - 2 : Launch Date - https://www.googlenewz.xyz/



Now After reaching the 100 Km of the lunar orbit , the lander housing the Rover in  "Chandrayaan-2" will separate from the orbiter.

And after that with a  descent control, the lander will softly land on the Lunar surface at  a specified site and deploy a Rover.


Notes on Chandrayan -2


Cost :- Rs 978 crore (approx)

Launch vehicle for this is :-  "GSLV MKIII "

Chandrayaan - 2 : Launch Date - https://www.googlenewz.xyz/


Purpose :-  It collect the data on lunar topography , minerallogy , elemental , abundance , lunar and exosphere and signatures of hydroxe and water-ice  (Presence of Water).



PRAGYAN ROVER OF CHANDRAYAAN - 2


HAVING A MASS - 27 KG which work on solar power

Our Country "Indian space research Organisation" (ISRO) unlike Nasa's  "Apollo" and  Russia's  "Luna" missions which were placed  (or landed) the Rover on the equatorial  region of the moon , is Planning to land the Rover near the south Pole.


Chandrayaan - 2 : Launch Date - https://www.googlenewz.xyz/
Rover PRAGYAN

And, so after the soft-landing , the six- wheeled rover will get detached from the  lander  and then it moved 100- 200 meteron the moon's surface and it will analyse the content. And, as excepted , It will remain active for 14 earth days (one lunar day ) and send back the datas and images to the earth via the "orbiter" with in "15 minutes".


Importance of Chandrayaan-2


Why Moon's South Pole is chosen for this mission?


So, there is a question arise that why was the southern Polar region of moon is chosen ?  So, the answer for this question  is that the space agency has said that Moon's South  Pole is more interesting because the surface area  under shadow in South Pole is much larger  than that at the North Pole.

And,  "There is a possibility of the Presence of water in Permanently shadowed areas of south Pole.  In addition , south pole region has craters that are cold traps and contain a fossil records of the early solar system" , so, the south Pole has chosen.


It's  Objective


From the scientific sides, the main aim of Chandrayaan -2  is to search the presence  of water on moon and with that the aims are to study Moon's topography , mineralogy , exosphere and  the hydroxyl signatures, etc.

And , the orbiter will creater 3D maps of the lunar surface and study the water ice in the south Polar region.


Challenges of this mission 


The main challenge of this mission is to safely land the rover on moon's southern surface . Because as the surface of moon have a numbers of small and big craters ; So there is a strong possibility that rover may land in those craters which have uneven surface and if  it falls on that uneven surface then it may get tilted to one end or may fall completely in that.


Chandrayaan - 2 : Launch Date - https://www.googlenewz.xyz/
Lander VIKRAM

So, our scientists are trying their best and taking lots of precautions to land it safely on even surface part of moon's south pole. so, that it can work properly and fulfill the purpose of this mission with it's hundred percent accuracy without failing.



Chandrayaan - 2 : Launch Date - https://www.googlenewz.xyz/

But due to some technical glitch the last schedule of launching was postponed. But the ISRO has now announced again the new launching date of chandrayaan - 2 . so, the new launching date of chandrayaan - 2 is ( 22nd july 2019 timing 2:51 pm ) .








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How Shams-ud-din ILtutmish Became The First Sultan Of India - Newspot ?

 How Shams-ud-din ILtutmish Became The First Sultan Of  India  - Newspot  ?
Shasms-ud-din-Iltutmish


Shams-ud-Din ILtutmish

Do you know shams-ud-din-Iltutmish  was the first Muslim ruler who became the sultan of India ?


Qutub-ud-din Aibak died at December  1, 1210 (@60 age) in Lahore , Pakistan.  After the death of Qutub-ud-din-Aibak  Shams-ud-din-Iltutmish became the first real Turkish sultan of Delhi. He was married to the daughter of Qutub-ud-din-Aibak and defeat Aibak inefficient son Aram shah who is placed on the throne by his officers at Lahore.



But Aram shah was opposed by the nobles of Delhi . In the court, the high officials including Turkish nobles at Delhi decided to invite  IItutmish to became the king because he was more capable than the son of Qutub-ud-din-Aibak . Finally the moments came when IItutmish was waiting this opportunity , responded to their call and reached Delhi and may take the powers of SUltan. The Battle between Aram Shah and Shams-ud-din IItutmish was fought in 1211  A.D.  which was won by IItutmish , then  IItutmish killed Aram shah in this battle . After this, the golden period of IItutmish was started in 1211 A.D.



He was the first muslim sultan of India  who get the recongization by the Khalifa. He was one of the successful sultan of Delhi because he safe Delhi from the attacks of Mongol kingdom which is in under the control of Genghis khan as well as both Yeldoz and  Qubacha . He also established his rule in north-India where Rajput powers made his difficult to him to capture the north India.



He also issued coins in his name and made his rule hereditary and made Delhi a beautiful city as his capital.



Early Career of ILtutmish 


IItutmish was born in a Turkish family in Central Asia . He was younger child in his family. He was handsome, tall and intelligent and loved by his parents. But  his jealous brother sold him as a slave merchant whose named as Jamal-ud-din.


He then received training as a soldier and he also received training in reading and writting as well. Muhammad Ghori was impressed by Iltutmish and recommended him to Qutub-ud-din-Aibak in these words:-  Treat Iltutmish well , for  he will distinguish himself. His statement became true later. Under Qutub-ud-din-Aibak , IItutmish came near the heart of Aibak and then he became the governor of Badaun. Aibak was so impressed by him that he made him his son-in-law.



His Difficulties 



IItutmish took the throne of Delhi at a time when the difficulties and crisis started . He had to face a number of difficulties in India and from outside the india. After the death of his master Qutub-ud-din-Aibak , the two big  rival get infront of IItutmish to became the king of Delhi Sultanate. Their rivals names are :- Taj-ud-din Yeldoz of Ghazni and Nassiruddin Qubacha of upper sind and Multan.



Yeldoz wanted to become the sultan of India and treated Iltutmish  as his slave who works under the rule of him. And his second rival Qubacha, the governor of Multan declaring his independence after the death of Aibak and also wanted to became the sultan of India

.
Another  big  problems faced by the IItutmish was that  Ali Mardan , the governor of Bengal and Bihar declared his independency after the death of Qutub-ud-din-Aibak.



The Another big problem faced by the IItutmish after the revolt of Rajput states like Ranthambhor , Jalor , Ajmer , Gwalior and other states had stopped paying taxes to him and declared their independence.


But the IItutmish was a brave and intelligent sultan. He accepted the whole challenge and faced the problems sincerly.



Defeat of Yeldoz



The one of the biggest enemy of IItutmish was  Taj-ud-din- Yeldoz of ghazani . He made preparations to face the battle with Yeldoz. Yeldoz was defeated by khwarizm shah and he came in India. In India , Yeldoz defeated Qubacha and captured Lahore and Punjab.



Then, IItutmish attack Yeldoz and  a battle between the two took place in the historic battle field of Tarain in 1215 A.D.



Yeldoz was defeated and death by IItutmish  with this all connections with Ghazni were cut by and   IItutmish felt secure. But he did not attack Qubacha and allowed him to rule over Multan.





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History of Bhoodan Movement - Aims and other details - Newspot


Indian Navy Launches Guided Missile Destroyer INS imphal- Newspot


Indonesia Will Move Its Capital From- Fast Sinking Jakarta- Newspot






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History of Bhoodan Movement - Aims and other details - Newspot


History of Bhoodan Movement - Aims and other details - Newspot


Bhoodan Movement


The Bhoodan - Gramdan movement initiated inspired by Vinoba Bhave brought vinoba to the international scene.

The "Bhoodan Movement" or "Land Gift Movement" , was a voluntary land reform movement in India , started by Acharya "Vinoba Bhave" in 1951 at Pocham Pally village in Telangana.


Background (Start of Movement)


Vinoba Bhave , a humble spiritual leader , the first non-violent resister to the Britishers and reformer of Independent India started this.

The mission was to persuade wealthy land owners to willingly give a small share of their land to the landless people.

And the idea of Bhoodan Movement broke out from one "dam" given by the Ram chandra Reddy a land owner of Andhra Pradesh of that time a 100 acres of land and the Bhave ji think that he can make it as a big movement and he continues his idea make it a big movement and became successful in it. Then he travelled across all of India to convince the wealthy Land-Owners to share a small area of their land with their poor and down trodden neighbours with the condition that they can't sell the land. Over a span of 20 years , a total of 4 milion acres of land was shared across the country through this movement.

History of Bhoodan Movement - Aims and other details - Newspot


Objectives of Movement


To  bring  about a social order based on equality of opportunities by ensuring balanced economic distribution.

Decentralisation of economic holdings and powers , Vinoba ji writes , while describing the objectives of Bhoodan Movement , "In fact , objective is of there fold".

Firstly , Power should be decentralised from village to village .

Secondly, everybody should have a right on land and property.

Thirdly,  there should be no distribution in the matter of wages etc.

Vinoba ji was interested in the creation of a new social order.


Outcomes of Movement 


Assuming that there were 50 million landless peasants in India. Vinoba ji set himself the task of collecting in land gifts of 50 million acres , so that one acre could be given to each landless was hoped would end up with 5 acres.


He travelled thousands of miles by foot accepting donations of land for redistribution to the landless. By 1969, the Bhoodan had collected over 4 million acres (1.6 million hectares) of land for redistribution.

History of Bhoodan Movement - Aims and other details - Newspot

Advantages


It is a bold step towards solving the problems of landless labourers in very peaceful manners.

It helps in bringing more land under plough . Even uncultivable land is cultivated.

It helps in the direction of tax burden.

It helps in reducing exploitation of the poor cultivators by the rich zamindars.


Disadvantages


The fundamental weakness of Bhoodan movement was that its appeal was directed not to the poor and landless , but to the rich and  landlords.Means that it does not made a "that type of " (mutual) connectivity with all.

So, the voluntary donations of lands were not the generous offerings of the rich . In many states the landlords donated lands to escape from the ceiling laws. They have " no free will" .

Another weakness is that the depressed people and the exploited section of the society have already exhausted patience.

They are in no mood to indefinitely wait for the positive results of the movements.






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Indian Navy Launches Guided Missile Destroyer INS imphal- Newspot


Indian Navy Launches Guided Missile Destroyer INS imphal- Newspot

INS  Imphal Guided Missile Destroyer

The Indian Navy has launched its third guided missile destroyer, INS Imphal at "Mazgaon Docks" as Part of its Project 15B.


VISAKHAPATNAM - Class  Destroyer

The visakhapatnam class (Project 15 Bravo) is a class of stealth guided missile destroyers currently under construction for the "Indian Navy" .

The class comprises four ships- Visakhapatnam, morrmugao, Imphal and Porbandar all of which are being built by the "Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL)" in India, and will be the destroyers to be operated by the Indian Navy.


Destroyers


                          Yard No.   laid down   launched   commissioning

INS 
Visakhapatnam :- 12704   12 october  20 April     2021(expected)
                                                2013               2015

INS
Mormugao :-       12705      4 june      17 sept       2022(expected)
                                                2015             2016

INS
Imphal :-             12706       19 may    20 April     2023(expected)           
                                                 2017        2019
INS
Porbandar :-        12707       19 july     not declared    not declared
                                                 2018               (under construction)



Indian Navy Launches Guided Missile Destroyer INS imphal- Newspot




Terminology


"Laid Down" ,  "Launched" , And  "Commissioned".

"Keel laying" or  "laid down" is the formal commencement of the construction of  a ship.

"Launch" of a ship is when the ship is floated and pushed out of the dry docks. It however, does not mean that the construction may be over. Many Systems, ESP (extra sensory perception) for an aircraft carrier, like weapons, surveillance, "RADAR" system and self defense systems may be added later.

"Commissioning" is the formal handing over the aircraft carrier (or any vessel)  to the operator.


INS Imphal


INS Imphal is the third ship of the visakhapatnam- class stealth guided-missile destroyers of the Indian Navy.

The Ship was named in recognition of the Indian soldiers who fought in Battle of Imphal during world war II.

It is first warship to be "christened" after a city in the Northeast.


Guided Missile Destroyer Means

A guided- missile destroyer is a destroyer designed to launch guided missiles. Many are also equipped to carry out anti - submarine , anti-air and anti-surface operations.


Armament of INS Imphal

Anti-air missiles :-  Here 4x8 cell VLS, for a total of 32 " Barak 8 missiles" are installed.

And as well as 

Anti-ship / land - attack missiles:- So here, 2x8 - cell UVLM for 16 BrahMos anti- ship  and land - attack missiles are installed.


Aviation  Facilities

It have a flight deck also. It have dual enclosed hangar for a combination of 2 westland sea king , Chetak or HAL Dhruv helicopters.

 Comparison with China

In March 1997 only, China had made the Luhu- class guided missile destroyer Harbin, the Luda-class guided missile destroyer zhuhai, and the replenishment oiler Nan cang began the PLA Navys first circum navigation of the Pacific Ocean.


And on 26 December 2008, China had Placed, the PLAN DISPATCHED a task group consisting of the guided missile destroyer Haikou ( flagship) , the guided missile destroyer Wuhan in his Navy. So, definitely, china is ahead but we are catchuping  China slowly in terms of Destroyers.



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ISRO 5 Satellites Saved Many Lives From Cyclone Fani - Newspot

ISRO 5 Satellites Saved Many Lives From Cyclone Fani - Newspot

ISRO 5 Satellites saved many lives from cyclone Fani


According to the Article from the CNN news that there is almost 100 million people in path of India's strongest cyclone in 20 years.

The UN and other experts praised India for its early warning system and rapid evacuation of more than a million people, which helped minimise the loss of life from deadly cyclone.

Odisha is home of 46 million people, but the news are coming from Odisha that it killed atleast 34 people and forced a massive evacuation.

According to IMD (Indian Meteorological Department) , data from satellites. There are 5 satellites who saves millions of lives.

There names are:-

i) INSAT - 3D

ii) INSAT -3DR

iii) SCATSAT - 1

iv) OCEANSAT -2

v) MEGHA TROPIQUES


 

But before going to discuss about what the satellites performs their roles to saved millions of peoples , we should first understand the cyclone Fani.

 What is Cyclone Fani ?  How he got his name as Fani ?



ISRO 5 Satellites Saved Many Lives From Cyclone Fani - Newspot

Each tropical cyclone basin in the world has its own rotating list of names. For cyclones in the Bay of Bengal and Arabia Sea, the naming system was agreed to eight member countries of a group called WMO / ESCAP and took effect in 2004.

  
The name of the cyclone "Fani" , pronounced as "Foni" was suggested by Bangladesh. It means 'snake'  or 'head of snake'.


The Fani cyclone is the strongest cyclone who hit India in 20 years, it spent days building up power in the Norhtern reaches of the BAY OF BENGAL before it struck the coast of the state of odisha at around 8 a.m.  The State run Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) said- The speed of winds is around 200 kph.



In 2017, cyclone Ockhi hits parts of Kerela , Tamil Nadu and Srilanka. Cyclone OcKhi left nearly 250 people dead and more than 600 missing in Tamil Nadu and Kerela.


Cyclone Gaja, Cyclone  Sagar (in Somalia) , Cyclone Mekunu  (striked Oman) , Cyclone Luban  (affected the Arabian Peninsula) and Cyclone Titli (made landfall near Palasa, Andhra Pradesh) were part of 2018 North Indian Ocean Cyclone Season.


 Facts about Fani cyclone


The timing of cyclone Fani is important because the cyclone started developing in April, a month that has historically seen very few cyclones that were categorised as extremely severe.

ISRO 5 Satellites Saved Many Lives From Cyclone Fani - Newspot


Between 1965 and 2017, India was hit by 145 cyclonic storms that were classified as severe, very severe, extremely severe and super cyclonic storm of these, that only 7 (5 percent) were in April and 27 cyclones (18 percent) in May.



Most of these cyclones ( 90 i.e., 62 percent ) were generated between October and November.


 There are mainly two sources of cyclones


The Indian  Subcontinent experiences cyclone from two basins : The Bay of Bengal basin and Arabian Sea basin. Of the two, more cyclones are generated in the Bay of Bengal and Cyclones that are generated here have also been more severe than the one generated over the Arabian Sea.


One of the reasons why tropical cyclones are more prone to the Bay of Bengal is that it's surface temperature is more than that of the Arabian sea. Tropical cyclones generally need a temperature of around 25-27 degree celsius.  The Bay of Bengal is more conducive to this than Arabian Sea.



 Let's come to the topic how satellites saves millions of peoples:-

ISRO 5 Satellites Saved Many Lives From Cyclone Fani - Newspot


i) INSAT - 3 D

It is a meteorological , data relay and satellite aided search and rescue satellite developed by the ISRO and was launched successfully on 26 July 2013 . Using an Ariance 5 ECA launch vechile from French Guiana . It is lauched in geostationary orbit.


ii) INSAT - 3DR


It is an Indian weather satellite built by the ISRO and operated by the Indian National Satellite System. The Satellite was launched on 8 september 2016, and is a follow-up to INSAT -3D.



iii) SCATSAT- (Scatterometer Satellite-1)


SCATSAT-1 is a miniature satellite providing weather forecasting , cyclone prediction, and tracking services to India. It has been developed by ISRO Satellite centre, Bangalore whereas its payload was developed by space application centre, Ahmedabad. It's launch date is 26 september 2016.



iv) OCEANSAT-2


OCEANSAT - 2  is an Indian satellite designed to provide service continuity for operational users of the ocean colour Monitor (OCM) instrument an Oceansat-1 . It will also enhance the potential of applications in other areas.


OCEANSAT-2 is ISRO's first in the series of IRS (Indian Remote Sensing) satellites dedicated to Ocean research. It's launch date-23 september 2009.


v) MEGHA TROPIQUES


Megha -Tropiques is a satellites mission to study the water cycle in the tropical atmosphere in the context of climate change.


A collaborative efforts between ISRO and French Centre National d' Estudes Spatiales (CNES), Megha- Tropiques was successfully deployed into orbit by a PSLV rocket in October in 2011.


It's lauched date is 12 october 2011.


So, all these worked together to save many lifes.












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Indonesia Will Move Its Capital From- Fast Sinking Jakarta- Newspot

Indonesia Will Move Its Capital From- Fast Sinking Jakarta- Newspot


Change of capital


In 2019, President of Indonesia was announced that Jakarta would no longer be the capital of Indonesia in the future, with a 10-year Plan to transfer all government offices to a new capital city.

Three locations were Proposed : "Palangkaraya", "Tanah Bumbu"  and  "North Penajam Paser"-  these all are in Kalimantan in Indonesia.






Reasons Behind this decision 


Now, the problem is that  Jakarta is sinking and upto 2030 the very large part of North Jakarta or it is possible that whole North Jakarta will submerge in water. And in the long run that means after 70-80 years the very large part of Jakarta will submerge in water and the Indonesian government guessed consequence which should be faced by Jakarta (Indonesia) very early (in 2019 only). And there are other reasons are also in existence with this is that Jakarta is already a very active industrial city that here lots of economical activites are exercised and that's why lots of employment are available here and due to that from all over other parts of Indonesia many peoples come to Jakarta in search of work and so, due to that load of population is increased in Jakarta and so due to that here traffic is also in bad situations.


So, overall Now a days Jakarta is easily playing his role very easily as a capital.


So, Indonesian government proposed to change the capital of Indonesia from Jakarta to Borneo Island part which comes under Indonesia in Kalimantan. And here the main contender for being capital is Palangkaraya because the Geologist are supporting this very much because it is very safe with respect to natural climate and geologist says that here is very less risks of single natural disasters in recent future.


Indonesian  Future capital city proposal 


In Java, the population is 57 percent of the total for Indonesia, or more than 140 m people , to the point that the ability to support this, whether in terms of the environment, water or traffic in the future, will no longer be possible. So, I decided to move outside Java

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     _ Indonesian President


Jakarta is sinking 


Jakarta is a victim of climate change, the fault of humans the world over (though mostly the fault of corporations) but it's also a victim of its own policies. The city is sinking - a process known as land subsidence - because residents and Industries have been draining aquifers, often illegaly, to the point that the land is now collapsing.




Think of it like a giant underground water bottle : If you empty too much of it and give it a good squeeze, it's going to buckle. Accordingly, parts of Jakarta are sinking by as much as 10 inches a year.








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